Lumen prize : A short history of Digital Art and Technology
The years following warfare II were formative within the evolution of digital media, marked by major theoretical and technological developments. In Gregorian calendar month 1945, the Atlantic Monthly revealed the essay “As we have a tendency to could Think” by Bush, the yank engineer and man of science UN agency, throughout the war, headed the federal department of research project and Development, that oversaw the Manhattan Project. Envisioning a future during which the main target of science and technology would air serving, instead of destroying, humankind, Bush describes a tool he calls “memes,” a table with clear screens that will enable users to browse documents and to form their own path through a body of documentation.
Bush imagines that the content—books, periodicals,, images—could be purchased on microfilm, prepared for insertion. The user might conjointly input direct information. Bush’s specific device was ne’er designed, however his conception of it absolutely was deeply powerful in shaping the history of computing. The memes is currently unremarkable acknowledged as a abstract forbear to the electronic linking of materials and, ultimately, to the web as a large, linked, globally accessible information. In 1946, the University of Pennsylvania given the world’s 1st computer, referred to as ENIAC (Electronic Numerical perimeter and Computer), that stuffed a complete room; 5 years later, the primary commercially on the market computer, UNIVAC, that was capable of process numerical additionally as matter information, was proprietary.
By then, yank scientist Norbert Wiener had coined the term information processing, from the Greek kybernetes (“governor” or “steersman”), to explain the rising field of science dedicated to the comparative study of various communication and management systems, like the pc and also the human brain. Artists in real time saw the inventive potential of electronic management systems and commenced to experiment with informatics art, like victimization feedback loops in responsive sculptures. Lumen awards, the 1960s—the decade during which the earliest works exhibited in Programmed were created—turned dead set be notably necessary for the history of digital technologies, a time once the groundwork was ordered for a lot of today’s technology and its inventive exploration.
Bush’s basic ideas were developed additional by Theodor Nelson, UN agency in 1961 coined the words machine-readable text and interactive multimedia system to explain an area of writing and reading wherever texts, images, and sounds may be interconnected electronically and joined by anyone causative to a networked docuverse. Nelson’s hyperlinked setting was branching and nonlinear, permitting readers and writers to form and opt for their own methods through the data. His ideas clearly anticipated the networked transfer of files and messages over the web, that originated round the same time.
The Soviet Union’s launch of artificial satellite in 1957 had prompted the us to form the Advanced analysis comes Agency (ARPA) among the Department of Defense so as to keep up a number one position in technological innovation. In 1964, the RAND Corporation, the foremost think factory of the conflict era, developed a proposal for ARPA that conceptualized the web as a communication network while not central authority. By 1969, the child network—named ARPANET, once its Pentagon sponsor—was fashioned by four of the “supercomputers” of the time: at the University of Golden State, Los Angeles; the University of Golden State, Santa Barbara; the Stanford analysis Institute; and also the University of UT.